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Glossary
A1
Cargo or goods are in first class condition.
Ad Valorem
A fixed percentage of the value of goods. This is used to calculate customs duties and taxes.
Accessorial Charge
A charge made by a carrier for other than basic ocean transportation. Accessorial means a particular service other than basic transportation.
AFT
At or towards the stern or rear of a ship.
Affreightment
The hiring of a ship in whole or in part.
All inclusive
A shipping rate that includes all shipping and accessorial charges.
Alongside
Referring to the side of a ship. Cargo to be delivered 'alongside' are to be placed on the dock or barge within the reach of the transport ship so that they can be loaded abroad the ship.
BAF
Bunker adjustment factor. A fuel surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight rate.
Ballast
Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship at sea.
Berth
Place alongside a quay where a ship loads or discharges cargo.
Bill of entry
A shipper's detailed statement for customs purposes.
Bill of lading
A contract of carriage used by ocean, inland waterway, rail, truck common carriers, and contract carriers. This is a document signed by the carrier and acts as a contract of affreightment, a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.
Break Bulk
A term for general cargo. Cargo loaded in bulk inside a vessel as compared to cargo in a container.
C & F (CFR)
Cost and freight. A term of sale.
CAF
Currency adjustment factor. A surcharge expressed as a percentage from the freight rate compensating the shipper. Used to compensate for fluctuations in currencies.
CAN
Customs assigned number
Carrier
Any person who undertakes to perform the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or any combination.
Cash In Advance
A method of making payment for goods. Buyer must pay for goods before they are shipped.
Cell Guides
Upright metal fasteners welded to the ship's deck to secure the containers for the sea journey.
Certificate of Origin
Document presented to customs for import freight used to certify the national origin of the goods.
CES
Customs examination station. Customs agents are on duty full time. If required, freight is taken to a CES to be inspected.
CFS
Container Freight Station. A warehouse or terminal licensed by  Customs to receive in-bond (import) freight to be deconsolidated.
CIF
Cost, insurance and freight
CO or C/O
Certificate of origin (see above)
COD
Cash on delivery
Consignee
(C/nee) Person towhom goods are to be delivered by the carrier at the place of destination. This is the receiver.
Consignor
The sender of the goods.
Container
Wood or metal storage for the carriage of cargo.
Container Vessel
Ship specially designed to carry shipping containers.
Cranage
Charge of use of wharf crane when a ship's own appliances for loading or unloading are used.
CRF
Clean report of findings.Details the quality, quantity and state of goods that are shipped.
CRN
Customs registered number
C/V
Certificate of value
C/VO
Certificate of value and origin
DDC
Destination delivery charge. An accessorial charge to deliver at destination.
Delivery Order
Written instructions issued by owner of freight (or authorized agent) directing that the freight be released or shipped to a specified party.
Demurrage
Charges caused by containers being stored at port and using space beyond specified 'free period' of time.
Detention
Charges caused by containers being kept outside port beyond specified free time.
DF
Dead freight (shipper or charterer pays for space booked but not occupied)
Discharging
Removing goods from a ship.
Drayage
The trucking movement of a container.
Dry Van
A basic 20/40 ft container.
DWT
Deadweight Ton - Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement.Deadweight Ton - 2,240 lbs.
ETA
Estimated time of arrival.
ETD
Estimated time of departure.
ETS
Estimated time of sailing.
FAS
Free alongside ship. The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed alongside the vessel/quay.It is to a customer's advantage to buy goods FAS, because they then have more control over their shipment.
FCL
Full container load
FEU
Forty foot equivalent unit. Two 20 -foot containers equals one FEU.
FIATA
International Federation of Freight Forwarders Association
FILO
Free in, liner out.Seafreight which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays discharge costs.
FIO
Free in and out. Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but not loading and discharging costs.
FIOT
Free in and out and trimmed. Trimming - the leveling out of bulk cargoes.
FMC
Federal Maritime Commission
FOB
Free on board. Usually referred to the loading/terminal costs.
Fortnightly
14 days (every other week)
FOT
Free on truck. Includes all loading, discharging and seafreight costs. Also includes costs of placing goods onto trucks at the quay.
Freight Forwarder
Company or person who organizes transportation of cargo including one or all of the following: sea, truck, air or rail transport, haulage and customs clearance.
FTA
Freight Transport Association or Free Trade Agreements
FTL
Full Trailer Load
General Average
A maritime insurance term. All shippers help pay for damages or loss if any part of the ship or cargo is voluntarily sacrificed (thrown overboard) to save the ship and/or the rest of the cargo. It is usually recoverable under the ordinary marine insurance policy.
Groupage
A container with cargoes from/for different shippers/receivers containing more than one shipper's cargo.Otherwise known as LCL (less than a container load).
Harimonized System
Detailed numeric system used worldwide to classify freight.
ID
Import duty
IFF
Institute of Freight Forwarders
IMDG
International Maritime Dangerous Goods code
IMO
International Maritime Organization
ISF
International Shipping Federation
Keelage
Toll on vessels entering a port
Laytime
Time given by the shipowner to allow a chartered vessel to load and/or discharge cargo.
LCL
Less than a container load. A container with cargoes from/for different shippers/receivers. One container containing more than one shipper's cargo.
LILO
Liner in, liner out or full liner terms. Qualification to a freight rate which signifies that it consists of the ocean carriage and the cost of cargo handling at the loading and discharging ports according to the customs.
LO/LO
Lift on/lift off
Mafi
A term used for wheeled trailer used for carrying cargo also known as a roll trailer.
Manifest
A list of the cargo to be loaded including Bill of Lading number, weight, volume, shippers and receiver's names, etc.
NMB
National Maritime Board
Open Top Container
Container with a removable fabric roof which enable heavy/bulk cargo to be loaded into the container by crane/elevator.
Overlanded
Cargo discharged but not on the manifest, generally by accident.
Overweight Container Law
Since April 9, 1997 any container or trailer in intermodal commerce weighing over 29,000 lbs must provide all parties with actual weight, reasonable description of the cargo, identity of the certifying party, the trailer or container number, and the date of certification.
Pallet
A wooden frame on which pieces of general cargo are placed so they can be lifted using a forklift truck.
Packing list
Document which itemizes shipment contents.
PD
Port dues
Phytosanitary Cert.
Phyto means plants. Under WTO treaty, a competent government authority can issue a certificate based on inspection of goods confirming that a plant, seeds, or plant products are free of insects and disease which the destination country specifies.
Prime Entry
Statement of goods based on details included in the bill of lading.
Pro Forma
Pro forma invoice - it is a quotation.
Rolltrailer
A term for a wheeled trailer used for carrying cargo, also known as a mafi. It can be used to transport cargo to and from the vessel once on quay.
RORO
Roll on, Roll off. Handling of cargo onto or off ship by vehicles or trailers, which could remain onboard.
Schedule B Number
Classification number assigned to freight.
Seafreight
Charges of transporting cargo by sea.
Shortlanded
Cargo manifested for port, but not discharged either by accident or design.
Short Shipped
Cargo not loaded and left either by accident or design.
SL & C
Shipper's load and count
SOB
Shipped on board
Starboard
Right side of a ship when facing the front or forward end.
Stern
The aftermost part of the ship.
Stowage Order
Before certain classes are sent to the docks for shipment, a special stowage order must be obtained from the shipowner. It is the shipowner's authority to the shipworker to accept the goods and stow them where indicated. This must accompany the goods to the docks.
Tank Container
A container suitable for carrying liquids of powder
Tare
The actual weight of the container only without goods.
Tariff
A published listing containing actual rates, classifications, charges, and rules. A tariff is the distinguishing feature of a common carrier consisting of transportation between published points/routes of service based on a common set of rules, at specified costs.
TEU
20-ft equivalent unit. A standard of measure used to indicate container vessel or terminal capacity. A 20-ft container.
THC
Terminal handling charge. Another accessorial charge.
Transshipment
Transfer and reloading of freight from one vessel to another or from one mode to another, i.e., truck to ship) during the course of shipment from origin to destination.
U.S. Customs
A division of the Department of Treasury is in charge of controlling the admissibility of goods into the country, and collecting duty and taxes. Customs also enforces laws and regulations regarding imported goods.
VAT
Valued Added Tax
Warehouse Entry
Applies to import goods that won't be used immediately.
Wharfage
Fees for use of wharf in discharging cargo.
Less Than Container Load is Known as LCL
This is a method of shipping when you do not have enough cargo to utilize a complete container. Your cargo will be shipped in one (1) container with other people's shipments. It is a shared space. You must pay attention to the packaging of your goods for this method since it will be handled in the consolidation warehouse for packing of the container. The weight and dimensions of your shipment are necessary as ocean pricing is based on volume (per cubic meter/or cubic foot, not to exceed 45 pounds per square foot). Weight and classification is used to figure the trucking transportation to the port. The cargo is then taken to a consolidation warehouse to ready for departure.
Full Container Load is known as FCL
This is a method of shipping when you have enough cargo to utilize the complete container. Even though you have a full container load, 45 pounds per square foot up to a maximum of 40,000 pounds is per container, must be followed. You cannot load a container at a port. You will incur an intermodal trucking charge to you to have a container brought to where you can load your cargo and the driver will wait until you have packed the container. Usually you have 2 to 3 hours to load your cargo and then it is returned to the port for shipping. There are other arrangements that can be made for packing and your Freight Agent at Dominion Power Maritime Global Ltd can consult with you regarding this aspect.
The advantage of being able to use a full container load (FCL) is that the container is sealed after you finish loading and no one will touch your cargo until you reopen it at it's destination. Customs is the only one who might open the container to inspect for clearance. The originator of the cargo is responsible to know that the cargo can be legally accepted and taxes have to be paid at that appropriate destination.
General Information For Decision Making
The most common containers used in ocean freight are the 20 foot and 40 foot standard containers. They are used for shipping by road and by ocean. The standard container is used because they can be easily stacked. These containers offer the lowest cost to business and the consumer in shipping large quantities or high weight content cargo. The interior dimensions of each 20 foot or 40 foot container is:
20-ft standard container: 19'5" long x 7'8" wide x 7'9" high
40-ft standard container: 39'6" long x 7'8" wide x 7'9" high

 

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